Audronė Janužytė


Based on insights into economic nationalism, this article focuses on the forms of nationalism which were manifested in the relations between Lithuanians and ethnic minorities, groups, immigrants, and refugees in the independent state of Lithuania. The aim of this article is to highlight features of economic nationalism through an analysis of the relations between Lithuanians and ethnic minorities in two cases of independent Lithuania: 1) ethnic discrimination and ethnic conflicts in the 1930–1940 period; and 2) negative and religious xenophobic attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in the periods of the global financial crisis in 2008–2009 and the refugee crisis in Europe in 2015. This analysis enables us to explain the emergence of economic nationalism as well as its general and specific characteristics in Lithuania, i.e., the reasons triggering the outburst of negative, discriminatory, hostile, or religious xenophobic views of people in Lithuania towards ethnic minorities, groups, immigrants, and refugees. These views emerged during political, democratic, and refugee crises in Europe and the global financial crisis, and in some cases even resulted in physical violence against minorities – especially against Jews in the 1930s.