Policy implementation involves translating the goals and objectives of policy into action. Although seen as an integral part of the policy cycle, substantial research has not yet been carried out in this area. This paper examines the state and status of policy implementation as a discipline and the factors associated with implementation performance, based on a review of the literature and analysis by researchers. The assessment in this study confirms the dearth of theoretical development of this subject as a major concern for this discipline and a barrier for perfect execution. It was also found that multiple factors are linked to poor policy performance, such as a lack of coordination, funding, commitment, capabilities among implementers and top-down support. Finally, by critically looking into loopholes associated with performance in policy implementation, five theoretical models were developed for improving performance. These respectively had a rational, organisational, political, bureaucratic and management basis. It is expected that the application of these standards would help to overcome issues, leading to successful policy performance.
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