Viktor V. Tyshchuk


In the modern world, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly powerful tools for ensuring security and protecting national borders. Their monitoring and reconnaissance capabilities make them valuable assets for border services seeking to counteract smuggling, illegal migration, and other transborder crimes. However, the rapid development of UAV technologies also poses new challenges to the legal system, which require careful analysis and the adaptation of existing regulatory frameworks. This scientific article is dedicated to a comprehensive study of the legal aspects of using UAVs to ensure security and protect national borders. The research covers a wide range of issues, including: the legitimacy and ethical aspects of using UAVs for monitoring and protecting national borders; the right to privacy; freedom of movement; ethical principles of the use of force; and potential abuses of UAVs. The article also thoroughly examines international, intergovernmental, and national legal acts regulating the use of UAVs in the security sphere. An analysis of the conformity of modern technological achievements to existing norms is conducted, and areas requiring improvement are identified. In addition, practical aspects of implementing unmanned technology in border security systems are considered. Potential risks and benefits of using UAVs are identified, along with recommendations for minimizing risks and maximizing benefits. Geopolitical consequences of the rapid development of UAV technologies are explored, with attention paid to the influence of semiconductor geopolitics and technological progress in the field of UAVs through the lens of contemporary trends in global relations. The article concludes that UAVs have significant potential for ensuring security and protecting national borders. However, to fully realize this potential, it is necessary to improve the legal regulation of UAV usage. Alongside this, there is a need to develop effective strategies for utilizing UAVs in border security and enhance legislation in this regard. The scientific novelty of this study lies in its comprehensive analysis of the legal aspects of using UAVs for security and border protection, and in identifying and analyzing new challenges posed by modern technological advancements in the UAV field to the legal system. The research findings can be utilized to improve legislation regulating the use of UAVs in border security. General recommendations outlined in the conclusion, developed within the study, will assist border services worldwide in enhancing the use of UAVs for border protection. This research could contribute to the development of international cooperation in the legal regulation of UAV usage.