The higher education system in India is complex. The regulators associated with governance are overlapping and entangled across various ministries and regulatory bodies. With a Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of 15 per cent, India is still below the world average. With relatively stagnant growth of public sector, private sector now accounts for 63 per cent of the total higher education institutions and 52 per cent of the total enrolments in Indian higher education. Despite various intervention measures to address equity objectives, disparity still exists in terms of gender, ethnic groups, and economic criteria and by location. Quality and efficiency policy responses and their endeavours have been insufficient accompanied by poor regulations and its subsequent implementation. Multiple regulations and measures have been envisaged by different commissions and committees to enhance the access, quality and equity to face the challenges of opening-up this sector globally.
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