This article analyses the problem of migration in Lithuania and assesses the impact of migration on the economy. Contemporary migration trends began to emerge after the restoration of Lithuania’s independence, and further intensified after Lithuania’s accession to the European Union. Migration is emerging as a challenge and opportunity, so it is important to determine the migration challenges that Lithuania faces and the possible consequences of this process. The theoretical part of the article defines the concept of migration, the main types of migration processes and explains the theories that analyse factors affecting migration. The economic migration of Lithuanians during 2001-2011 is analysed in the analytical part of the article. It assesses the imbalance between emigration and immigration, the main causes and consequences of migration. In order to identify and assess the relationship between emigration and the country’s main economic indicators, the last part of the paper is based on correlation analysis. The analysis reveals that the strongest statistically significant positive correlation is between the number of emigrants and private remittances to Lithuania. These cash inflows increase aggregate demand, domestic consumption and GDP growth.