This article proves that social protection is an effective tool for reducing poverty, contributing to the integration of economic and social aspects of sustainable development. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of the social protection system in the Republic of Kazakhstan and to develop measures to improve the level of social security and mechanisms for financing social protection. The results obtained during the study allow concluding that over the years of independent development in the Republic of Kazakhstan, a national model of social protection has been created, a number of important social programmes have been adopted aimed at reducing the level of poverty among the population. The social protection system is a key element of national governance. They embody the social values of any society. The social protection system has three main purposes: to guarantee all members of society access to basic goods and services, to promote active social and economic security, and to develop the individual and social potential for poverty reduction and sustainable development of society. Social protection supports people in handling risks and reducing inequality and also allows them to fulfil their full potential for personal growth and meaningful contribution to society throughout their lives.