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Vaida Pukinaitė

Abstract

The main strategic documents in Lithuania are based on Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach and aim to reduce social inequalities in health. However, there is still no consensus on an instrument of effective implementation or optimal and comprehensive HiAP implementation model. By using HiAP approach, governments, health and other sectors can choose from a wide range of tools, methods, policy instruments and strategies. Therefore, this article aims to identify, summarize and analyze the conducive dimensions for successful efforts of HiAP. The main idea of this article is to show that the generalization of major dimensions of HiAP can contribute to the formation of theoretical and practical HiAP model in Lithuania. HiAP dimensions in this context are understood as the main tools and methods of HiAP, which are significant for HiAP efforts and determine conducive HiAP implementation. This article aims to analyze the concept of HiAP, to show its historical development and examine the conducive dimensions for successful efforts of HiAP. Methods of scientific literature and case study analysis as well as analysis of the Lithuanian legislation and EU legislation and generalization are used in this article.The examination of HiAP concept from the historical and present perspective showed that this approach is derived from the changes in the health concept used in international academic and practical discourse. Moreover, HiAP approach is shaped by the transnational and national commitments, international health declarations, treaties and agreements. HiAP approach focuses on the contribution of public policies to the maintenance and improvement of public health. In order to implement this approach, possibilities must be provided for various public sectors to affect health; cooperation techniques and mechanisms must be developed to coordinate the actions of various institutions, and the inclusion of the stakeholders in decision-making and development processes of public health must be encouraged. The analysis of measures and methods of HiAP allows drawing the conclusion that the conducive dimensions for successful efforts of HiAP are as follows: windows of opportunities and the promotion of the priority of health; cross-sectorial and inter-institutional cooperation and the participation of all sectors; the new role of the health sector and health sector’s leadership; shared benefits, determinants across sectors and overlapping indicators; the context and the external and internal factors.

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